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时尚是否需要回收?

来源:中国绸都网 | 作者:陈文婷 | 时间:2009-09-22 11:39:05 | 订阅《东方纺织》周刊

Fashion is Recycle or not ?
INEVITABLY, the talk of Paris fashion has been less about clothes than about money.
Retailers are worried about sales, and magazines are concerned with the loss of advertising. And most designers, listening to the bean counters, have played it so safe with their fall collections that they run the risk of choking. Fashion is in a fractured state.
Still, few designers are willing to admit that the expectations of fashion are changing, or to honestly question the future for luxury goods if the appetite — largely invented over the last decade with calculated marketing more than innovative design — no longer exists. Alexander McQueen’s exceptional collection shown here on Tuesday night, the most ambitious we have seen this season, was as much a slap in the face to his industry, then, as it was brave statement about the absurdity of the race to build empires in fashion.
With a runway of broken mirrors surrounding a garbage heap made of props from his own past collections, Mr. McQueen created a stage to symbolize the sudden crash of luxury exuberance. The clothes he sent out were a parody of couture designs of the last century, spoofing Dior’s New Look and Givenchy’s little black Audrey Hepburn dresses, as well as their reinventions by new designers at those companies in the last decade — himself included. It was a bit of a Marie Antoinette riot, poking fun at all the queens of French fashion.
“This whole situation is such a cliché,” Mr. McQueen said before his show. “The turnover of fashion is just so quick and so throwaway, and I think that is a big part of the problem. There is no longevity.”
Mr. McQueen, in effect, was calling fashion’s bluff when he opened his collection with a suit in a 1940s silhouette, with a nipped waist and flared skirt in houndstooth wool, worn by a model who walked with her hands on her hips and posed with the exaggerated gestures of an Irving Penn photograph. That was followed by a houndstooth print on a mink coat in a Poiret shape and wool jackets that were defaced with embroidery that looked like a Jackson Pollock painting.
All the models wore hats by the milliner Philip Treacy that were made of trash-can liners and aluminum cans, or recycled household objects; the makeup, inspired by the mad look of Terry Gilliam’s “Brazil,” gave the models the appearance of plastic faces that were all lips. The music, as well, was a mash-up of songs from his prior shows, with bits of “Vogue” and Marilyn Manson’s “Beautiful People.”
This was, Mr. McQueen said, an ironic exploration of a designer’s reinvention. The irony is that designers say that fashion is constantly being reinvented, yet they continue to show the same shapes and trends of decades past. (Ergo, this season the collections have been fixated on the 1980s.)
After the triumphs of his recent collections, this was a risky show, entirely uncommercial and intentionally provocative, and it generated extreme reactions. Dennis Freedman, the creative director of W, was visibly ecstatic watching the show; but another magazine editor, afterward, compared the trash-bin styling to “a collection inspired by Wall-E.” And some questioned whether Mr. McQueen, by including such obvious references to trash, was targeting John Galliano’s version of Dior, which, in January 2000, included a couture collection inspired by hobos and that led to protesters wearing plastic garbage bags outside the Dior ateliers on Avenue Montaigne.
Throughout his career, Mr. McQueen has relished pushing people’s buttons, though maybe less obviously since moving his shows from London, where he had developed the reputation as the enfant terrible, to Paris in 2001 after he sold his company to the Gucci Group. Mr. McQueen turns 40 next week, so he is no longer an enfant, though his work remains challenging and confrontational, especially this season, when it seems like the right moment for a deeper exploration.
While he is mocking the establishment for running circles over fashion history, isn’t Mr. McQueen as guilty as the rest?
From 1997 to 2001, he was the designer for Givenchy, one of the luxury brands owned by LVMH, and his tenure there was frequently marked by conflicts with management and mostly negative critical reviews. Before he showed his first collection, succeeding Mr. Galliano, who had moved to Dior, Mr. McQueen offended many French journalists by declaring that the original work of Hubert de Givenchy was “irrelevant.” Amy M. Spindler, the New York Times fashion critic, wrote of Mr. McQueen’s couture debut in 1997: “This was basically a pretty hostile collection from a gifted designer who seems in conflict about his role in the Givenchy studio. How members of the audience responded to the show depended on whether they were fascinated by that hostility and vulgarity or repelled by it.” The same could be said today.
During his early days in London, Mr. McQueen’s collections were sometimes described as misogynistic. The shows made audiences uncomfortable, and equally fascinated, most controversially in 1995 when he referenced the ravaging of Scotland by England by showing brutalized women in a collection called “Highland Rape.” He later transformed models into animals with horns on their shoulders or wearing leather masks like falcons; and in a 2000 collection, he showed models in a setting that looked like a mental hospital. The historian Caroline Evans, in “Fashion at the Edge,” noted that McQueen’s aesthetic of cruelty was actually culled from historic sources, “the work of 16th- and 17th-century anatomists, in particular that of Andreas Vesalius, the photography of Joel-Peter Witkin from the 1980s and ’90s, and the films of Pasolini, Kubrick, Buñuel and Hitchcock.”
So much informs Mr. McQueen’s collections that things get lost or obscured. In addition to Dior and Givenchy and Pollock, the new fall collection, titled “The Horn of Plenty,” included leather coats and poof dresses with a pattern inspired by Bauhaus and clowns, a magpie print inspired by the drawings of M. C. Escher, and dresses made of duck feathers after Matthew Bourne’s production of “Swan Lake.” The invitation showed an image of a woman with a trash bag on her head by Hendrik Kerstens, photographed in the manner of Dutch portrait artists, which was the starting point for Mr. McQueen’s exploration into recycling. (The image was recreated in a hat by Mr. Treacy.)
Some of the fabrics were made to look like refuse, including a wet-looking black paper nylon that resulted in dresses that resembled Mr. Givenchy’s chic styles, only made of Hefty bags. A charcoal silk cape looked as if it was made of bubble wrap.
“I’ve never been this hard since I’ve been in London,” Mr. McQueen said. “I think it’s dangerous to play it safe because you will just get lost in the midst of cashmere twin sets. People don’t want to see clothes. They want to see something that fuels the imagination.”
It’s an interesting issue that Mr. McQueen raises by challenging the status quo. While he did not exactly propose an obvious solution for the times, he at least suggested a viable alternative to the never-ending recycling of other designers’ fashion, which was to recycle his own.

 

                                     时尚是否需要回收?

      不可避免的是,巴黎时装更多的是谈论花了多少钱,而不是服装。
      零售商们担心的是销售问题,而杂志则重点关注广告的得失。而大部分的设计师在设计服装的时候,当他们的思想受到窒息危险的时候,他们会趋向更加保守更加安全的设计。 时尚因此而四分五裂。
      但是,一些服装设计师更乐意承认,时尚在发生变化,或者诚实的说,时尚趋向奢侈化。如果说时尚不复存在,因为在过去10年中营销创新比设计创新花费的经历更多。亚历山大&S226;麦奎因在周四晚上展示的优秀的收藏品显示了这一赛季见的最多的雄心勃勃,好像一记耳光打在脸上,对于建立时装帝国这一荒谬的比赛,他作了最勇敢的陈述。
      根据我们过去收藏的道具,他是在天桥周围的一圈破碎的玻璃垃圾所组成的,麦奎因先生创建了一个舞台,象征着奢侈品的突然崩塌。他将衣服用来模仿上世纪的时装设计,欺骗了迪奥焕然一新的面貌和纪梵希的小奥黛丽赫本的黑色礼服,以及这两家公司在过去的十年中再创造新的设计师。这是一个玛丽安托瓦内特的暴乱,矛头直指所有的法国时装女王们。
       “整个形势都是老生常谈,”麦奎因先生在展出前这样说。“时尚的转变是相当迅速,并且是一次性的,而且这也是问题中的一部分,他不会长久的流传下去。”
      事实上,麦奎因先生也曾经追寻过时尚的潮流,他展出了一套衬衣,带着20世纪40年代的特色,腰部皱褶,还有一条碎花羊毛的喇叭裙,模特穿着这套衣服,将手放在臀部,作出一个像欧文佩恩一样的夸张的手势,在舞台上行走。这之后,碎花图案就印染在保罗&S226;波烈外型的貂皮大衣上,羊毛外套上面满是刺绣,像极了杰克逊&S226;波洛克的绘画
      帽子魔术师菲利普&S226;崔西生产的所有型号的帽子都是有塑料袋,铝罐或者一些回收的家用品制作而成的。这一灵感来自于特里&S226;吉列姆的野性的“巴西”气息。音乐也是他之前所选择的,音乐耶同样还是从他的先前所选的歌曲“时尚比特”和玛丽莲&S226;曼森的“可爱女人”中的一部分。
      麦奎因先生说,这是一个设计师滑稽的探索尝试。然而更具讽刺的是,设计师经常说时尚就是不断改进,但是他们展现的仍然是过去几十年的样式和趋势,这些设计还一直维持在上个世纪80年代左右的款式。
      这是一个冒险的表演,当他近期的一些成功的藏品展示后。该表演是完全非赢利的,故意挑衅现代时尚的,以及他产生的极端反应。丹尼斯&S226;弗里德曼,W的创意总监,他对节目赞赏有加,但是另一个杂志编辑在比较了塑料袋和“收藏灵感”之后提出了很多问题质疑麦奎因先生,通过这些明显的垃圾的引用来针对迪奥的约翰加里亚诺的作品。其中2000年1月,包括一个时装手机流浪汉的灵感。示威者身穿塑料垃圾袋在蒙田大道上迪奥制造厂门外示威。
      在其职业生涯,麦奎因先生被人们津津乐道,也许显示并不十分明显,但是从伦敦开始,他因为缺乏思虑而获得了可怕的声誉。在2001年到达巴黎后,他卖掉了他的工厂,加入Gucci集团。麦奎因先生下周满40岁,因此他不再是小孩子,虽然他的工作仍然充满挑战和对抗,特别是本赛季,他似乎进入了一个更深的探索区域。
      虽然他也是在讽刺服装界建立了时尚的历史,但是麦奎因先生作为余下的,是不是一样有罪呢?
      艾米米德勒,纽约时报的时尚评论家,他描写了麦奎因先生在1997年首次亮相的时装,文中这样写到:“这对纪梵希工作室来说,基本上是强劲的竞争对手,他是一个天才设计师谁。展览厅现场观众的反应显示了他们是否敌对,庸俗或是打败。”今天也同样如实说来。
      早期在伦敦的时候,麦奎因先生的藏品有时候被描述成厌恶女人的。1995年的展览给观众一些不舒服的感觉,但是相当着迷,引起了强烈争议 ,因为他引入了“Highland Rape”。他稍后将模特转变成动物,他们的角在肩膀上,或者像猎鹰一样喜欢穿皮面具。并且在2000年的展示中,他让模特如同行走在一家精神病院。历史学家卡罗琳&S226;埃文斯对于“时尚的边缘”这一主题表示,麦奎因先生的残酷美学思想实际上来源于历史。“16-17世纪解剖学家的工作,特别是安德烈&S226;维萨里,20世纪80年代到90年代期间的摄影师乔尔彼得&S226;威特金,还有关于帕索里尼,库布里克,布努埃尔和希区柯克的电影”。
      关于麦奎因先生展会的信息如此之多,以至于部分事实模糊了或是遗失。除了迪奥和纪梵希和波洛克,关于新赛季秋装的搜集,标题名为“蓝精灵”,包括皮制外套, poof连衣裙上包豪斯和小丑描绘的图案,喜鹊图案的灵感来源于埃舍尔周期图。连衣裙是用鸭毛做的,借鉴的是马修伯恩的“天鹅湖”。邀请画中显示了一个妇女头挂一个塑料袋的画像,这是亨德里&S226;克尔斯滕斯的作品,以荷兰画师的方式拍摄的。 这是麦奎因先生探索回收资源的起点。
一些面料做的看起来像垃圾,包括一种用湿润外观的尼龙黑纸制作的连衣裙,这是纪梵希先生的风格类似,只是他是用塑料袋制作而成的。一种竹炭丝斗篷看起来像是用泡沫做的似的。
      对织物提出了一些看起来像垃圾,其中包括湿前瞻性尼龙黑纸,在这纪梵希先生类似的时尚风格,只有高额袋的裙子结果。阿炭丝角看起来好像它是泡沫包装的。
       “从我到伦敦其我就从来没有这样努力过,” 麦奎因先生说。“我认为合理的游戏时尚是困难的,因为你将会迷失在两套羊绒外套之间。人民不希望看见,他们只是想要看见一些激情,如同燃料带给人们的想象力。”
      “我从来没有这方面努力,因为我已经在伦敦,”麦奎因先生说。 “我认为这是危险的发挥它的安全,因为你将变得迷失在羊绒双套之中。人们不希望看到的衣服。他们希望看到一些燃料的想象力。“

      麦奎因先生挑战现状这是一个有趣的问题。虽然他没有完全提出一个明显的划时代的解决方案,但是他至少对于其他设计师的时装无休止的回收提出了一个切实可行的选择,那就是他的自我回收。(本网记者:陈文婷)
 

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